Here lies Martes Flavigula, eternally beneath the splintered earth.

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Lakife -

Lakife - some grammar ideas


to have

  • Kon ... jetz == with ...
  • Et kon kolep jetz: I'm with a pigeon
  • Li introduces a modifyer phrase
  • Piluf sylet li kon soloz jetz: Another weeping bloom
  • Piluf (s)ylet: next bloom
  • la kon soloz jetz: that has a tear
  • Qikon af ... jetz: to want. *af* is the hypothetical particle. Literally "i hypothetically have" or "were i to have".
  • et qikon af li lofez qisylet (jetz): I hypothetically have that a sheep becomes another. I want another sheep.
  • jetz should be understood with want

one of your pidgeons

  • like in czech: jeden z tvých holubů


  • near: at the side of - konis == beside

It is near (at my side): an konis You are near: is konis You are near (beside) me: is kon et nis You are here. Is mole. I'm coming (to you). Et qikon is topen. I'm coming there (to your place). Et qitin mole isiz. to stay, remain, wait: mikonis I'll wait until tomorrow: et mikonis pelis ten sylet (pot). Fek ten sylet pot et qeqikez. Tomorrow, I become a goat.

  • proximous

It is proximous: an pelonis You are proximous: is pelonis You are close to me: is pelis et nis You are by (at) my side: is fek pilos nis

  • far: without touch

It is far: an nufixum / an pes nufix nis. It is without touch. You are far from me: is pes et nis

  • distant: unseeable

Is fek tilokum topen. You go out of sight / no sight. Anju qoqifek tilokum topen. He left. Anju qomimole um. He became not here. He left. Is fek nufixum topen. You go out of touch / no touch. Et sot mole topen. I go out of this place. I'm outta here. Joz sot mole topen. Get out of here. You are very distant (you are outside of this space): is sot mole nis

  • near (communication): with words

you are near (you are with words): is kolam jetz (is kon lam jetz == literally they have words)

  • far (communication): beyond words

they are far: solan pelam jetz (solan pes lam jetz == literally do not have words)

  • distant: with silence

she is distant: an(a) kotix jetz

  • side: pilos

  • back: spal

  • at the back: fespal

  • I'm at the back: et mispal (I exist in the back - more permanent?)/ et fespal

  • body / form / shape: soxel

  • head: kop

  • sky: miqir

  • face: kar

  • skin / surface: fix

  • foot: naham

  • floor: tunaham (from tul & naham)

  • earth : tzem

  • middle / stable place: haru

  • expanding place: hara (creation)

  • position: motyk

  • sitting / squatting: mi-riz tul

  • lying: mi-ref tul

  • standing: mi-riz hal

  • et qin haru nis: I am in the stable place (home?)

  • an tzunis: it is in the middle (in the between)

  • lanase tul fek ses jetz: that person is low in spirit. Spiritual sense. Not depressed.

  • lanase tul fek haru jetz: that person is low in stability / home-place. Depressed?


  • nole - now
  • noljae - this instant
  • funol - past
  • funolu - past discreet time
  • funola - past indeterminate span
  • funola jeniz - once (during one span of time in the past)
  • potonol / potonolu / potonola - future
  • pelis nol lil pot - in little time/ soon
  • pelin(ol) - soon


  • et / solet: I / we
  • yz: We, exclusive
  • is / solis: You
  • an: he / she / it
  • anju / anja: he (male) / she (female)


  • existence, change into a state, transaction between a source and a beneficiary, and part or quality of a whole
  • qi- ... change into a state
  • hupu qihupa: the noise becomes music
  • hapa: fire, qihapa: to become fire, qoqihapa: burned, qeqihapa: will burn
  • kitap qihapa: thebook becomes burning
  • anja jo qoqihapa kitap: she burned the book
  • hara: creation: qihara: become extant, qoqihara: made, qeqihara: will make
  • pro-verbs?
  • rolihara: to do in this manner (thus)
  • et(jo) txihara rolit? Do I do it this way?
  • et rolitihara? Do I do it this way?
  • is txihara holit? is holitihara? What are you doing?
  • pepir: from above. qipepir: to begin to fall
  • mi-: existence
  • mitzunis: to be in the middle / float
  • mifonis: to be among / mingle
  • qifonis: to become part of / join
  • et mifonis kon lanas sol jetz: I'm mingling with people
  • et mifonis kon myx sol etiz jetz: I'm among my thoughts - thinking hard?
  • et mitzunis kon myx sol etiz jetz: I'm floating (lost) in my thoughts
  • et fol myxu nis: I'm among my daydreams.
  • mikon af (jetz): to need
  • isjo mikon af tam. She needs blood
  • is mikon li tet anju isiz qismet: She needs her father to die (she needs that he father dies)
  • tzi- transaction
  • tzimyx: to think
  • tzimyxa: to have an idea
  • etjo tzanon tzihupa: i music (play on an instrument) the song
  • etjo tzanon tzihup: i sound (play) the song (on a stereo)
  • Qisylet: to become another of / another. Always in clause.
  • Qijen: to become one with (join)
  • is qeqijen kon is jetz. I will join you.
  • tzilok: to see. tziloka: to look (at)
  • anja jo sopen teniz tzilok. She saw the dawn (beginning of the day)
  • anjo sopen teniz tziloka: She watched (looked at) the dawn
  • laugh AT... normal ERG ABL verb ... no preposition is needed
  • *Etjo qotxiposa fela hupol kez.* I laughed because of the goat. Or the goat made me laugh. This does not mean I made fun of the goat.
  • I smiled because of the goat. *Etjo qotxiposa fela ret kez.*
  • I smiled at the goat. *Et qotxiposa fela ret pelis kez.*

adjectival clauses

  • xebe li soletjo qotzikomu (an): that bread that we ate (it)
  • anju li qomilankif qoqikuraf: he who was a drunkard became a prostitue.


  • mark all subjects of transitive verbs ergative (jo)

adverbs & connectives

  • zas: again
  • Zas is qikon af tam. She wants blood again.
  • Mou zas is qikon keris. She needs a rat again
  • jena: singular
  • jenu: lone, only
  • potot: afterwards
  • mofek: at the place
  • nofek: at the time (then)
  • ronuz: in this / that way (referring to the previous phrase)
  • pelja (pelis ja nis): almost (near the transformation)
  • hal ... jetz: instead of (in the "place" of)
  • x tzuf mole y liz: x instead of y
  • x fal nole y liz: x in spite of y
  • fal ... jetz: in spite of
  • *nuzole* - because. ends the phrase that starts with *li*.
  • *Li et mikonum hiqa nuzole pa is kon kez etiz jetz.*
  • Because I am dead, you can have my goat.


  • -i: and. miqir tzemi: heaven and earth


  • et kon myx isiz jetz (nis?): I am with your thoughts (I agree)


  • It would be funny if the context tells you whether or not you are being pejorative


  • incohatove - qi- (intransitive): *lok sol kes liz qoqinoz*. The goat's eyes darkened (became dark)
  • CAN - *pa* particle.
  • volitive - *tou* particle.

valence (see book)


  • *Pelis pinu noliz pot anja kez fek nulu topen tzihupol.* Until the end of time, the goat-like woman yammers into the void.


#### coordination

*Anju somut anjao*. Boy much-amount girl-comparative. More boys than girls. *-o* is the comparative suffix, which works the same as *-i*, the conjunctive suffix. *somut* is "more" (much amount). *somute* is "the most" (amount). *nomute* is "the most" (time). *momute* is "the most" (space). *Ten teno fure kez somut qotzifek mole*. Today day-then the-before goat many past-to here. Today, more goats came than yesterday.


  • whatever. *hole af*.
  • anywhere / wherever. *mole af*.
  • whatever you want. *Hole af li is qikon af.*
  • wherever the sheep needs to go. *Mou mole af li lofez tzifek.*

Subordinate clause xof

We are going home to feed the goat. *Yz fek peite topen lijo kez peletz txijet.* We to home direction that-ERG goat DAT TRS-food.

  • I'm not sure *jo* is needed.

We're arriving soon to eat the goat. *Pelin yz mimolap topen lijo kez tzijet.* Soon we be-somewhere direction that-ERG goat TRS-food. Let's go to the place that has contented goats. *Jax solet fek mole li (an) kon kez sol kofelu.* JUS we to place that it with goat PLU content. **an** is only needed if the subject of the subordinate clause is ambiguous. I see the village that we're going to. *Etjo txilok peitotz li solet fek an.* I-ERG INC-eye village that we to it.

*role* can introduce a subordinate clause or simply a noun phrase. It means, roughly, "how". *Kez jo kop ariz qotzirox role naham etiz.* By-the-means foot my. *Et kon zanum role kez qoqihiqaum.* i with knowledge-not how goat past-incoh-life-not. i don't know how the goat died.

Along with martens, goulish goats and the rippling fen -
these writings 1993-2021 by Bob Murry Shelton are licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

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